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| Last Updated:: 21/05/2018

Infrastructure

 
Infrastructure
  
Introduction
 
 
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide the frame work supporting an entire structure of development. It is an important term for judging a country or region's development.
 
The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, bridges, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions." 
 
Tamil Nadu Housing Board 
 
  • The Tamil Nadu Housing Board is a body, duly constituted by an act called “Tamil Nadu Housing Board Act, 1961”. (Madras Act 17 of 1961). Originally a City Improvement Trust which becomes the present Tamil Nadu Housing Board.
 
  •  The Tamil Nadu Housing Board is catering the Housing needs of different categories of the society in tune with their economic affordability. The City Improvement Trust was formed in 1947 to cater to the housing needs of a growing population in Chennai.
 
  •  It was felt by the Government of Tamil Nadu that the housing problem had to be addressed not only in Chennai city but also in the districts of Tamil Nadu and thereafter Tamil Nadu Housing Board (TNHB) was established in the year 1961, with an objective of providing “Housing for All ”. 
 
  • In order to fulfill the housing needs of growing population of all categories of the public, adequate houses/ flats/ plots are being implemented by TNHB with all Infrastructure facilities at affordable prices.
 
  • Since its inception, TNHB has created 400583 residential flats/houses/plots to all  categories of peoples of Tamil Nadu, such as Economical weaker section(EWS)/Lower Income Group(LIG)/Middle Income Group(MIG)/Higher Income group (HIG) and rental quarters for the Government servants under Tamil Nadu Housing Board's Government Rental Housing Scheme (TNGRHS), in phased manner.
 
Source: Tamil Nadu housing board, Chennai 600 035
 
Transport
 
Transport infrastructure comprising of airports, seaports, and rail and road network constitutes the transport infrastructure.  Tamil Nadu with its strong transport infrastructure along with the state of the art communication network is steadily moving in the direction of achieving an all inclusive growth path plan in this sector. Public and private investments have augured for its steadfast growth.
 
 A review of the Transport and Communication Sector of our state reveals many strategic moves which are in tune with the objectives laid down by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC), in its Road Development Plan VISION: 2021’ covering for a period of 20 years (2001-2021). 
 
Road Network 
 
Government of Tamil Nadu has the unique distinction of creating a separate Highways Department as early as in 1946 exclusively to attend to roads and bridges in the State. Tamil Nadu was the forerunner in bringing out standard specifications for the roads and bridges in the year 1954.
 
 The objectives of the department are to maintain and improve the roads under the control of the Government, and to provide all weather road connectivity to rural habitations. Minor Ports were later brought under the purview of this Department. Subsequently, this Department was renamed as Highways and Minor Ports Department. 
 
Highways of Tamil Nadu 
 
In Tamil Nadu's road network has a total road length of 1,99,040 km. Tamil Nadu has about 14257 km of Highways network which is designated as National Highways and State High ways on the basis of traffic intensity and connectivity. The various types of roads and their lengths are given below:
 
 
Tamil Nadu Road Network
Class
Length (km)
National highways/expressways
4,873
State highways
9,384
Total (approx)
14,257
                 Source: Department of Highways, Chennai-5
 
 
Upgrade, resettlement, and repair work on rural roads, district roads, and state highways are undertaken by the Tamil Nadu Road Sector Project Wing of Highways & Minor Ports Department (HMPD) along with National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) with the loan assistance of the World Bank. 
 
National Highways         
       
 Road stretches which have a heavy traffic intensity of more than 30,000 Passenger Car Units (PCUs) connecting different state capitals, major ports, large industrial areas and tourist centers are designated / declared as National Highway by government of India.
 
 
In Tamil Nadu, “National Highways Wing’’ of Highways & the Minor Ports Department was established in the year 1971 to look after the works of improving, maintaining and renewing of National Highways laid down by National Highways Authority of India (NHAI).  
 
 
National Highways wing exercises central government funds from Ministry of Road Transport and Highways for improvement works. Out of 25 National Highways in Tamil Nadu, 12 NH's runs inside the Tamil Nadu. NH 47, NH 49, NH 208, NH 220 connects Tamil Nadu with Kerala.
 
 
 NH 67, NH 207, NH 209 connects Tamil Nadu with Karnataka. NH 205, NH 219 and NH 234 connect Tamil Nadu with Andhra Pradesh. NH 4 connects Chennai city in Tamil Nadu with Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. NH 5 connects Chennai city in Tamil Nadu with Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. 
 
 
NH 7 connects Tamil Nadu with Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. 'NH 66 connects Tamil Nadu with Karnataka and Puducherry. 
 
 
Schemes being implemented:       
 
Widening, improvements, strengthening and maintenance works are being carried out in the State National Highways roads, using funds from Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India. 
 
Plan Works 
 
In 2012-2013, 29 road improvement works to a total length of 346.12 Km and 7 bridge works were taken up as spill over at a cost of Rs.348.83 Crore. In addition to this, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India has sanctioned 18 road works, for 86.45 Km and one bridge work at a cost of Rs.104.30 Crore under its Annual Plan 2012-2013. 
 
Under this scheme 16 Nos. of road works to a length of 250.12 Km and 2 bridge works at a cost of Rs.213.06 Crore have been completed in 2012-2013. For the financial year 2013-2014, tentative allotment of Rs.180 Crore is expected from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways under this scheme. 
 
Non-plan Works 
 
Under Special Repairs and Periodical Renewals, seven road works to a length of 73.15 Km at a cost of Rs.30.34 Crore were taken up as spill over in 2012-2013. Further the Ministry has sanctioned nine road works to a length of 61.40 km at a cost of Rs.31.77 Crore. For the financial year 2013-2014, tentative allotment of Rs.40 Crore is expected from the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways under this scheme 
 
Railway Projects in the State &Schemes being implemented: 
 
Under the Railway Works Programme, 130 spill over works were taken up in 2012-2013 by all the wings. Of which, 89 works were taken up by the Projects wing at a cost of Rs.2329.13 Crore.  In 2012-2013, 14 works have been completed at a cost of Rs.263.48 Crore and 29 works are in progress for a value of Rs.753.56 Crore. The remaining works are in various stages of pre-construction.
 
In the year 2012-2013, the Government have accorded administrative sanction for Rs.100.90 Crore to carry out preliminary works such as Land Acquisition, shifting of Service Utilities and investigation for 12 ROBs/RUBs which are in progress.
 
On completion of land acquisition, administrative sanction will be accorded in 2013-2014 for carrying out main bridge works. During 2012-2013, an expenditure of Rs.303.11 Crore was incurred under this scheme. A provision of Rs.694.62 Crore has been made for this scheme for the year 2013-2014.     
 
Chennai Metro Rail Limited: 
 
Chennai Metropolis has been growing rapidly and the traffic volumes on the roads have also been increasing enormously. Hence the need for a new rail based rapid transport system has been felt and towards this objective the Government of Tamil Nadu has decided to implement the Chennai Metro Rail Project.
 
 Hence, Chennai Metro Rail Limited, was formed which was initially a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV), then transformed into a Joint Venture of Government of India and Government of Tamil Nadu with equal equity holding.
 
The Project envisages the creation of 2 initial corridors under the proposed Phase-1, running from Washermen pet to Airport (23.1 kms) and Chennai Central to St.Thomas Mount (45.1 kms) with a completion target of 2014- 2015. 
 
Sea Port: 
 
Tamil Nadu has the second longest coastline (1076 KMs) with 3 major ports and 17 non-major ports. The non-major ports in Tamil Nadu were administered and controlled by the Tamil Nadu Port Department.
 
Keeping in line with the maritime history and in realising the need for growth in the maritime sector, the erstwhile Tamil Nadu Port Department was converted into Tamil Nadu Maritime Board under the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board Act, 1995 (Tamil Nadu Act 4/96) with effect from 18.03.1997. The Minister for Highways and Minor Ports, Government of Tamil Nadu is the ex-officio Chairman of the Board.   
 
Airports: 
 
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) currently manages 125 airports throughout the country including 11 international airports, 77 domestic airports, 9 airports for customs officials and 28 civilian enclaves inside military airfields. Mumbai and New Delhi are, however, the most important airports, accounting for 49 percent of all passengers and almost 65 percent of international passengers.
 
The two airports also bring in 33 percent of AAI revenue.    The airport is the first among the Tamil Nadu Airports and also among the airports in India. The amount of cargo and air traffic that the airport handles has made it an integral part of Tamil Nadu Travel. The airport was also the final destination of Air India's first flight from Bombay via Belgaum in 1954.
 
The first passenger terminal of the airport was built at the northeast side of the airfield, which lies in the suburb of Meenambakkam due to which it is also referred as the Chennai Meenambakkam Airport. The airport has a new terminal complex located to the south of Pallavaram while the old terminal is used as a cargo terminal for the courier companies. 
 
Tamil Nadu Airports List 
 
Trichy Airport (TRZ): Trichy Airport is a small airport located about 7km from the city and operates flights to major cities in India and to neighboring countries like Srilanka and Singapore.
 
Coimbatore Airport (CJB) - Peelamedu : Coimbatore airport is situated at Peelamedu, about 8 km from the city and has flights to all major destinations in India. 
 
Madurai Airport (IXM) : Madurai Airport is about 13 kilometers from Madurai Railway station and has connection flights to Bangalore,Chennai and Mumbai. 
 
Salem Airport (SXV) : The airport is situated exactly at 20 minutes drive from the city center. 
 
Tuticorin Airport: Tuticorin Airport located 10 km from Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, and India. 
 
Telecommunications: 
 
Tamil Nadu Telecommunications Limited (TTL) was set up in 1988, a three way joint venture of Telecommunications Consultants India Limited (TCIL), a Government of India Enterprise under the Ministry of Communications, which renders Consultancy Services and undertake Turnkey Projects in all Fields of Telecommunications in India and abroad, Tamilnadu Industrial Development Corporation Limited (TIDCO), a Govt. of Tamilnadu Enterprise, which is responsible for development of industry in the State of Tamilnadu, India and Fujikura Limited of Japan, a leading manufacturer of Optical Fiber Products in the world.  
 
In 1998 TTL embarked upon diversification of its products range with the manufacture of the state-of-art optical fiber cables, in technical collaboration with M/s. Fujikura Limited of Japan. TTL’s OFC Plant is located in CMDA Industrial Complex, Maraimalai Nagar about 40 Kms. from Chennai. This sophisticated cable plant is set up with the complete range of machinery line imported from M/s. Nextrom Technologies (Nokia) of Finland. 
 
Vehicle Population: 
 
With the rapid increase in the number of vehicles, the problem of automobile pollution has assumed greater significance. Since the emission of smoke from motor vehicles is a major source of air pollution, specific standards for the permissible limits for such emission have been prescribed in the Motor Vehicles Act 1988 and Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989.
 
All vehicles which are in operation for more than a year should undergo emission tests every six months. The Government has authorized 248 Private Emission Testing Centers throughout Tamil Nadu as per rule 116(B) of Tamil Nadu Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 and has made it mandatory that at the time of every transaction with Regional Transport Offices, certificate of Pollution under Control will be checked.
 
The Vehicle Population in the State is showing an increasing trend. The average number of vehicles registered per day had increased.
 
 
VEHICULAR POSITION IN TAMIL NADU AS ON 01.05.2013
TRANSPORT
NON TRANSPORT
Stage Carriages
Motorcycles
8170160
PUBLIC (Stu)
 
21419
Scooter
1735348
PRIVATE
 
7787
Mopeds
4370989
TOTAL
 
29206
TWO WHEELERS
14276497
Mini bus
4017
Motor Car
1519596
 
 
Jeep
44677
Contract Carriages
Tricycle Auto
4332
Autorickshaw
210745
Tractor
225359
Ordinary Taxi
4156
Three Wheeler
61842
Motor Cab (SP)
93656
Four Wheeler
17378
Motor Cab (AIP)
11935
Road Roller
2111
Maxi Cab (SP)
62199
Others
40147
Maxi Cab (AIP)
5870
 
Omni Bus (SP)
779
Omni Bus (AIP)
166
TOTAL
389506
Private Service Vehicles
12441
Total Non Transport
 
School Bus
21697
 
Ambulance
7769
Fire Fighter
1588
TOTAL
43495
Goods Carriages
Lorries
226905
National Permit LORRIES
74612
 
Transport
1046003
 
Tractor & Trailor
75139
 
 
Light Commercial Vehicles
198393
Non Transport
16191939
 
Articulated Vehicles
4730
STATE TOTAL
17237942
TOTAL
579779
 
 
Transport Total
1046003
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 The following are some of the other measures taken for the control of vehicular pollution: 
 
1. Prescription of a time schedule for converting petrol driven autorickshaws in Chennai city to autorikshaws run on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has also agreed to offer a subsidy of Rs.3000/- for such conversion. In Chennai city, there are 23 Auto LPG Dispensing Stations for the supply of LPG to Motor Vehicles. 
 
2. Banning of new petrol and diesel auto rickshaw permits. 
 
3. In order to improve the Air Quality management LPG is permitted to use as an alternate fuel in motor vehicles. To minimize air pollution, motor vehicles running on petrol are being converted so that they can run on LPG. This is being done in a phased manner as per the directions of the Supreme Court in Metropolitan cities. 
 
4. The emission standards have been tightened up and Bharat Stage III emission norms have been introduced for vehicles plying in 11 major cities in the country. 
 
Source:
 
Department of Highways, Chennai 5, http://www.tn.gov.in/dear/8.%20Transport.pdf, Transport Department Government Of Tamil Nadu, Wonders of Tamilnadu, Tamilnadu Tourism.